A 17-year-old paid the ultimate cost when he ate two hamburgers “with everything, to go” as well as died days later.
the item’s the “wakeup calls along the way” of which prove to the industry “how imperative a strong food safety culture is actually,” said Mike Taylor, co-chairman of the nonprofit’s board as well as a former deputy commissioner for foods as well as veterinary medicine at the FDA.
Preventing foodborne illness from the United States is actually the job of the US Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety as well as Inspection Service, which oversees the meat, poultry as well as processed egg supply, as well as the US Food as well as Drug Administration, responsible for domestic as well as imported foods.
With frequent news of outbreaks, which are investigated by the CDC, many people might wonder whether foodborne illness is actually on the rise — as well as whether safety measures across the nation adequately protect our food supply.
is actually foodborne illness on the rise?
Matthew Wise, deputy branch chief for outbreak response at the CDC, said the agency usually gets “about 0 illness clusters” to evaluate each year. Wise described these clusters as “potential outbreaks.”
“Outbreaks are the very, very, very end of a long process,” he said. An outbreak investigation includes collecting evidence, confirming an illness-causing pathogen as well as tracing contacts; most of This particular work is actually performed by state health departments, though the item is actually coordinated by the CDC.
Catherine Donnelly, a professor of food science at the University of Vermont, said This particular increase may be partly due to enhanced tools both for detecting contamination in food as well as for outbreak surveillance, reporting as well as investigation.
“Surveillance has drastically enhanced, as well as state public health labs are linked to databases at CDC, allowing quick identification of patterns of illness as well as links to food products. As a result, we see more reports of foodborne illness,” Donnelly wrote in an email.
Her view is actually widely shared; Taylor agrees however said the question of whether foodborne illness is actually increasing is actually a “complicated” one.
Still, reductions in salmonella, listeria as well as additional key pathogens have not occurred, he said.
Reported outbreaks may have fewer cases today than from the past, Taylor said. The ability to detect outbreaks more rapidly, due to whole genome sequencing, also means the CDC can follow through as well as contain an outbreak more swiftly.
Donnelly notes of which the proportion of Americans considered to be at risk for foodborne illness is actually also increasing — yet many people do not know or understand of which they might be at risk, she said.
“Pregnant women, the elderly as well as persons with suppressed immune systems due to cancer treatment, diabetes, liver as well as kidney disease are just a few examples of conditions of which increase the risk for foodborne illness,” Donnelly said. “Young children are also vulnerable to developing serious illness via foodborne disease.”
Outbreaks are also influenced by seasonal as well as environmental factors, she said.
“We do see more outbreaks of foodborne illness reported from the warmer summer months, where opportunities for food abuse arise [leaving foods unrefrigerated for periods of time, for instance],” she said. Flooding via storms has been associated with fresh produce outbreaks, while Vibrio illness linked to eating oysters may occur as a result of rising ocean temperatures.
The bottom line, Taylor said: “We have too much foodborne illness. the item’s largely preventable. There’s a lot of which has been done to reduce risk, as well as there’s a lot more of which can be done.”
All of safety, though, begins with an understanding of our food system.
The US food system is actually, in a word, global. “The reality is actually of which there’s a ton of movement of food into as well as outside the US,” Wise said.
The volume of imports via all over the earth contributes to the risk of foodborne illness because the item is actually challenging to oversee all This particular diverse activity, Taylor said.
“Some 95% of the seafood consumed from the US is actually imported; 50% of the fresh fruit as well as about 25% of the vegetables are imported,” he said.
“People are tending to eat more produce as well as eat the item in different forms, as well as those are not bad things, because we want people to eat more fresh produce, however when of which happens, you’re likely to improve the risk,” Taylor said. This particular risk is actually due to the fact of which fresh produce is actually “sold as well as prepared without any kill step,” such as cooking or canning, which can destroy illness-causing germs.
“Foods travel longer distances to get via farms to consumers, as well as pathogens can be introduced along the way,” Donnelly said. “There is actually wider geographic distribution of centrally produced foods, so when something goes wrong during production, the impacts are widespread.
“Many outbreaks linked to poultry, eggs as well as meat can be traced back to farms where intensive production practices can lead to [the] spread of highly virulent pathogens,” she said, while some are reflective of “poor food handling practices.”
however the item’s not just one or some areas of the food system of which are at issue, the item’s the entire evolving system, Taylor said. “There are lots of different improvements from the food system of which affect risk over time, as well as so the food safety problem, therefore, evolves over time.”
A culture of safety
“Since Jack from the Box, there’s just been enormous development of the understanding of the practices, the interventions of which can work to reduce hazards,” Taylor said. For example, industry has focused on practices of which can reduce pathogens on processing equipment as well as using microbial testing in food production systems to verify sanitation.
Many food companies have adopted “a best-practices continuous-improvement sort of philosophy,” he said. This particular comes down to “doing everything you can through the technology you’re using, the practices you’re using, the training of which you’re using, the way in which you’re motivating employees. Are you doing everything you can to ensure every day, the right thing is actually happening?”
A culture of self-improvement is actually also what allows some companies to embrace the message delivered by Stop Foodborne Illness, which focuses on the vital importance of food safety.
“People actually die. People actually have their lives permanently changed with severe illnesses,” Taylor said. Leaders of companies use stories via the Honor Wall to motivate their employees as well as reinforce why the item is actually so important for everyone to do the right thing every day to reduce the risk of illness via contaminated food.
“There’s no magic wand. the item’s a day-in, day-out process,” Taylor said.
Industry may play the leading role, however the government must also perform at a high standard.
The politics of safety
The Food Safety Modernization Act became law in 2011.
The act “is actually still being implemented, however the item basically codified This particular principle of which everybody responsible for producing food should be doing what the best science says is actually appropriate to prevent hazards as well as reduce the risk of illness,” Taylor said. “So we’re moving from the right direction.”
Under the brand-new requirements, state governments will be the frontline inspectors as well as overseers as well as supporters of food safety compliance for produce at the farm level, Taylor said. “They need resources to do of which. There started out to be resources available, however of which funding is actually incomplete.”
Also under the act — as well as for the very first time — the FDA will directly oversee the importers as well as evaluate whether they have in place the newly required foreign supplier certification program, Taylor explained. The program requires of which importers know their foreign sources of supply (as well as their practices) as well as verify of which suppliers are meeting US requirements.
The FDA’s greatest challenge, then, is actually of which there are about as many overseas facilities registered to manufacture as well as sell food here as there are US-based facilities, Taylor said.
“Congress has gotten about halfway to what the item said was needed to successfully implement” the act, Taylor said. Although the item is actually still being phased in, the funding is actually incomplete.
“The commissioner of FDA, Scott Gottlieb, is actually supportive of FSMA,” Taylor said. “He’s continuing all those things of which we’ve been doing during the previous administration as well as pushing forward on them. the item’s not for lack of commitment as well as effort as well as FDA folks wanting to charge forward.
“Historically, food safety as well as nutrition have never been adequately funded at FDA,” Taylor said, based on his experience at the agency via the 1970s through 2016.
Donnelly said of which “Beyond budget, there is actually a lack of trained food inspectors at FDA. Food companies complain of which FDA’s approach to inspection is actually punitive, versus a more educational approach taken at [USDA], where on-site inspectors work with food processors to assure safe food production.”
Meanwhile, lawyers have replaced government scientists at the FDA in many instances, as well as so there is actually a lack of understanding of how certain foods are produced, she said.
“Without knowledge of production practices, the item is actually difficult to offer guidance to processors to effectively manage risks. This particular is actually why education is actually key,” Donnelly said.
“As consumers demand more products of which are fresh as well as locally produced, providing more hands-on education to producers to effectively manage risks can help produce safer foods,” she said.
Consumers also play a role in food safety well beyond their “demands” as well as purchases.
“This particular story is actually not complete if we don’t remind consumers they are part of the food system as well,” Taylor said.
The fifth pillar
The all 5 pillars of foodborne illness prevention are farms; processing; transportation as well as storage; retail; as well as consumers, Taylor said: “the item’s everybody’s problem as well as everybody’s solution at the end of the day.”
Donnelly noted of which “the percentage of overall foodborne disease outbreaks linked to restaurant settings increased to 60% in 1998-2015, while outbreaks reported from the home dropped significantly to 8%.”
“Consumers with compromised immune systems need to reconsider their food choices,” she said. “As consumers age, their immune systems become less functional, increasing their risk. In a recent Listeria outbreak involving cantaloupe, the median age of persons who developed illness from the outbreak was 84.”
Wise said of which whenever an outbreak occurs, the CDC repeatedly asks itself: “Have we reached a point to communicate?”
“If I go home as well as I think of which there’s something I should tell to my mom or my wife about not eating, then of which should be from the public domain at of which point,” he said. “We do tend to communicate when we have identified a product with enough specificity of which might allow someone to be able to take an action.”
In each outbreak communication, the CDC informs the public about where sickness is actually occurring, the severity of illness, symptoms as well as product recall information, if any. the item helps when people who believe of which their own illness may be part of an outbreak talk to their doctors.
“People should know of which there’s a lot of high tech, high-powered science going into figuring out how to do better at preventing foodborne illness,” Taylor said. “People should know of which the system — government as well as industry — they’re not just sitting back.”