People infected with HIV go through three stages of infection:
- Acute infection, or acute retroviral syndrome, which can produce flu-like symptoms inside the first month after infection.
- Clinical latency, or asymptomatic HIV infection, in which HIV reproduces at lower levels.
- AIDS, in which the amount of CD4 cells fall below 0 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (as opposed to the normal level of 500-1,500).
HIV-1 in addition to HIV-2 can both cause AIDS. HIV-1 is actually the most common human immunodeficiency virus; HIV-2 is actually found mostly in western Africa.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) involves taking a cocktail of HIV medications used to treat the virus. In 1987, Azidothymidine (AZT) became the first FDA-approved drug used to attempt to treat HIV/AIDS.
Statistics 2019 Update
37.9 million – Number of people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide in 2018.
8.1 million – Approximate number of people living with HIV globally in which are unaware of their HIV-positive status in 2018.
0,000 – Newly infected children worldwide in 2018.
1.7 million – brand new infections worldwide in 2018.
770,000 – Approximate number of AIDS-related deaths worldwide in 2018.
Of the 5,000 brand new infections each day in 2018, 61% are in sub-Saharan Africa.
Sub-Saharan Africa is actually comprised of the following countries: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Sao Tome in addition to Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia in addition to Zimbabwe.
1981 – The Centers for Disease Control in addition to Prevention (CDC) publish the first reports of men in Los Angeles, brand new York in addition to San Francisco who were previously healthy in addition to are suffering through rare forms of cancer in addition to pneumonia, accompanied by “opportunistic infections.”
1982 – The CDC refer to the disease as AIDS for initially.
1983 – French in addition to American researchers determine in which AIDS is actually caused by HIV.
1985 – Blood tests to detect HIV are developed.
December 1, 1988 – First World AIDS Day.
1999 – Researchers inside the United States find evidence in which HIV-1 most likely originated in a population of chimpanzees in West Africa. The virus appears to have been transmitted to people who hunted, butchered in addition to consumed the chimpanzees for food.
January 29, 2003 – In his State of the Union speech, US President George W. Bush promises to dramatically increase funding to fight HIV/AIDS in Africa.
May 27, 2003 – Bush signs H.R. 1298, the US Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis in addition to Malaria Act of 2003, also known as PEPFAR (US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief), in which provides $15 billion over the next 5 years to fight HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis in addition to malaria abroad, particularly in Africa.
July 30, 2008 – H.R. 5501, The Tom Lantos in addition to Henry J. Hyde United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, in addition to Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008, becomes law in addition to authorizes up to $48 billion to combat global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis in addition to malaria. Through 2013, PEPFAR plans to work in partnership with host nations to support treatment for at least four million people, prevention of 12 million brand new infections in addition to care for 12 million people.
October 2011 – In his book, “The Origins of AIDS,” Dr. Jacques Pepin traces the emergence in addition to subsequent development of HIV/AIDS to suggest in which initial AIDS outbreaks began earlier than previously believed.
July 24, 2012 – Doctors announce during the 19th International AIDS Conference in which Timothy Ray Brown, known as the “Berlin patient,” has been clinically “cured” of HIV. Brown, diagnosed with leukemia, underwent a bone marrow transplant in 2007 using marrow through a donor with an HIV-resistant mutation. He no longer has detectable HIV.
March 3, 2013 – Researchers announce in which a baby born infected with HIV has been “functionally cured.” The child, born in Mississippi, was given high doses of antiretroviral drugs within 30 hours of being born. A year later, the child today has detectable levels of the virus in her blood, 27 months after being taken off antiretroviral drugs, according to scientists involved with her case.
June 18, 2013 – Marking the 10th anniversary of PEPFAR, Secretary of State John Kerry announces in which the millionth child has been born HIV-free due to prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs (PMTCT).
March 14, 2014 – The CDC reports on a case of likely female-to-female HIV transmission. Unlike previous announcements of various other cases involving female-to-female transmission, This specific case excludes additional risk factors for HIV transmission.
July 24, 2017 – A 9-year-old child through South Africa is actually reported to have been in remission for over eight years without treatment, according to Dr. Avy Violari, who spoke at the 9th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Science in Paris.
November 2018 – According to PEPFAR’s website, they have “supported life-saving antiretroviral treatment (ART) for more than 14.6 million men, women in addition to children” since 2003.
March 5, 2019 – According to a case study published inside the journal Nature, a second person has sustained remission through HIV-1. The “London patient” was treated with stem cell transplants through donors with an HIV-resistant mutation. The London patient has been in remission for 18 months since he stopped taking antiretroviral drugs. The study also includes a possible third remission after stem cell transplantation, This specific person is actually referred to as the “Düsseldorf patient.”
May 2, 2019 – A study of nearly 1,000 gay male couples, where one partner with HIV took antiretroviral therapy (ART), found no brand new cases of transmission to the HIV-negative partner during sex without a condom. The landmark, eight-year study, published inside the Lancet medical journal shows in which the risk of passing on the HIV virus is actually eliminated with effective drugs treatment.
October 7, 2019 – Governor Gavin Newsom signs a bill generating HIV prevention drugs available without a prescription in California starting on January 1, 2020. The medications covered by the brand new legislation are pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in addition to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which both help prevent HIV infections. California becomes the first state inside the country to allow pharmacists to provide the drugs without a physician’s prescription.
November 6, 2019 – According to a study published inside the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, a team of scientists has detected a brand new strain of HIV. The strain is actually a part of the Group M design of HIV-1, the same family of virus subtypes to blame for the global HIV pandemic, according to Abbott Laboratories, which conducted the research along with the University of Missouri, Kansas City.